dissabte, d’abril 17, 2021

stardate: dones i treball

Women in the EU are less present in the labour market than men. The gender employment gap stood at 11.7% in 2019, with 67.3 % of women across the EU being employed compared to 79% of men (EU27 data).

The gender pay gap in the EU stands at 14.1% and has only changed minimally over the last decade. It means that women earn 14.1% on average less per hour than men. It has only changed minimally over the last decade

Women in the EU even earned 36.7% less than men overall in 2018. One of the reasons is the fact that on average women spend fewer hours in paid work than men: Whereas only 8% of men in the EU in 2019 worked in part-time, almost a third of women across the EU (30.7 %) did so.

wage gap:
differences in abilities and preferences over jobs (Polacheck 1081, Azmat and Ferrer 2017)
discrimination (Goldin and Rouse 2000)
women are more risk averse and less competitive (Gneezy et al. 2003, Niederle and Vesterlund 2007, Buse et al. 2014)
men are moreover-confident (Barber and Odean 2001, Bordalo et al. 2019)
both men and women rate male applicants higher for jobs that require math skills (Moss-Racusin et al. 2012)
legislation that increases pay transparency reduces gender pay gap (Bennedsen at al. 2019)
women are more severely punished for financial misconduct (Egan et al. 2019)
female executives are more likely to exit following industry-wide contractions (Landsman 2018)
career-family balance produce job interruptions and reduce earning growth (Lazear and Rosen 1990, Goldin 2014, bertrand et al. 2010, Kunze 2020, Bertrand 2013)
educational differences are not an issue (Goldin et al. 2006)
women take longer in obtaining promotions (Ginther and Hayes 1999, Ginther and Kahn 2004)

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