dissabte, d’abril 17, 2021

stardate: dones i treball


Women in the EU are less present in the labour market than men. The gender employment gap stood at 11.7% in 2019, with 67.3 % of women across the EU being employed compared to 79% of men (EU27 data).

The gender pay gap in the EU stands at 14.1% and has only changed minimally over the last decade. It means that women earn 14.1% on average less per hour than men. It has only changed minimally over the last decade

Women in the EU even earned 36.7% less than men overall in 2018. One of the reasons is the fact that on average women spend fewer hours in paid work than men: Whereas only 8% of men in the EU in 2019 worked in part-time, almost a third of women across the EU (30.7 %) did so.




wage gap:
differences in abilities and preferences over jobs (Polacheck 1081, Azmat and Ferrer 2017)
discrimination (Goldin and Rouse 2000)
women are more risk averse and less competitive (Gneezy et al. 2003, Niederle and Vesterlund 2007, Buse et al. 2014)
men are moreover-confident (Barber and Odean 2001, Bordalo et al. 2019)
both men and women rate male applicants higher for jobs that require math skills (Moss-Racusin et al. 2012)
legislation that increases pay transparency reduces gender pay gap (Bennedsen at al. 2019)
women are more severely punished for financial misconduct (Egan et al. 2019)
female executives are more likely to exit following industry-wide contractions (Landsman 2018)
career-family balance produce job interruptions and reduce earning growth (Lazear and Rosen 1990, Goldin 2014, bertrand et al. 2010, Kunze 2020, Bertrand 2013)
educational differences are not an issue (Goldin et al. 2006)
women take longer in obtaining promotions (Ginther and Hayes 1999, Ginther and Kahn 2004)










dijous, d’abril 15, 2021

stardate: dones i violència. agressions

according to UN Women data

more than one in three women worldwide report having experienced physical or sexual violence in their lifetime, most frequently by an intimate partner — and this is likely a low estimate.

1 in 2 women killed worldwide were killed by their partners or family in 2017; while only 1 out of 20 men were killed under similar circumstances.
Only 52% of women married or in a union freely make their own decisions about sexual relations, contraceptive use and health care.

71% of all human trafficking victims worldwide are women and girls, and 3 out of 4 of these women and girls are sexually exploited.




dimarts, d’abril 13, 2021

stardate: dones i violència. presons

les diferències entre dones i homes es poden deure a raons biològiques, socials, educacionals, ... aproximadament es poden explicar així: un 33% pel naixement, un 33% per l'aprenentatge i un 33% per les decisions preses. 

aquestes diferències es tradueixen en diferències de comportament, de motivacions, de valors, ... sobre això se'n pot discutir molt, suposo per la manca d'estudis que ordenin i analitzin les evidències.

però hi ha una data que sembla indiscutible: la proporció de dones a les presons és de mitja (als països de la unió europea, i és bastant semblant en general) del voltant del 5%.

els crims més comuns pels que es condemna a les dones inclouen la prostitució, el consum de drogues i el frau. res a veure amb crims violents.







diumenge, d’abril 11, 2021

stardate: dones i cites

 

Riana Duncan
women are under-represented as a result of discrimination rather than ability.


simone de beauvoir: The second sex
The point is not for women simply to take power out of men's hands, since that wouldn't change anything about the world. It's a question precisely of destroying that notion of power.

angela davis
no estic acceptant les coses que no puc canviar, estic canviant les coses que no puc acceptar.

Feminism is the radical notion that women are people.

emily dickinson
we ignore our own stature until we stand up.

emily dickinson: We never know how high we are (1176)

We never know how high we are
Till we are called to rise;
And then, if we are true to plan,
Our statures touch the skies—
The Heroism we recite
Would be a daily thing,
Did not ourselves the Cubits warp
For fear to be a King—


lourdes beneria
jo veig tres línies. Primer, promocionar sectors que puguin afavorir el treball de les dones i tenir clar quines indústries posen la vida al centre, a les quals s’ha de donar suport, i quines no. Segon, empènyer l’estat a protegir cada vegada més les tasques de cura. Per exemple, a Espanya no hi ha prou guarderies, és el país de la Unió Europea que en té menys. I, tercer, ajudar i repartir el treball en l’esfera reproductiva.

marylin monroe
women who seek to be equal with men, lack ambition.


dita molt comuna
que la meva mare o la meva avia ho pugui entendre

d.h. lawrence, Lady Chatterley’s lover
She was too feminine to be quite smart.

mary beard: Women and power
A woman speaking in public was, in most circumstances, by definition not a woman.

It is still the case that when listeners hear a female voice, they do not hear a voice that connotes authority.

How can we make ourselves more aware about the processes and prejudices that make us not listen to her.

... if women are not perceived to be fully within the structures of power, surely it is power that we need to redefine rather than women.

... the presence of large numbers of women in parliament means that parliament is where power is not. (Saudi Arabian National Council)

What I have in mind is the ability to be effective, to make a difference in the world, and the right to be taken seriously, together as much as individually.


virginia woolf: The death of the moth and other essays
Professions for women
Even when the path is nominally open—when there is nothing to prevent a woman from being a doctor, a lawyer, a civil servant— there are many phantoms and obstacles, as I believe, looming in her way. To discuss and define them is I think of great value and importance; for thus only can the labour be shared, the difficulties be solved. But besides this, it is necessary also to discuss the ends and the aims for which we are fighting, for which we are doing battle with these formidable obstacles. Those aims cannot be taken for granted; they must be perpetually questioned and examined. The whole position, as I see it—here in this hall surrounded by women practising for the first time in history I know not how many different professions—is one of extraordinary interest and importance. You have won rooms of your own in the house hitherto exclusively owned by men. You are able, though not without great labour and effort, to pay the rent. You are earning your five hundred pounds a year. But this freedom is only a beginning—the room is your own, but it is still bare. It has to be furnished; it has to be decorated; it has to be shared. How are you going to furnish it, how are you going to decorate it? With whom are you going to share it, and upon what terms? These, I think are questions of the utmost importance and interest. For the first time in history you are able to ask them; for the first time you are able to decide for yourselves what the answers should be.

najat el hachmi: sempre han parlat de nosaltres
... la dita de Rosa Luxemburg quan diu que qui no es mou no nota les cadenes.

l'islam no es bo per a les dones perquè l¡islam, com qualsevol altra religió monoteista, ha estat inventat, difós i imposat pels homes i pel sistema que en perpetua el poder, l'artista anteriorment conegut com a patriarcat.


carme karr
no som, com alguns creuen, per ser feministes, enemigues de l'home...
però som enemigues de les injustícies de certes lleis, fetes pels homes.


divendres, d’abril 09, 2021

stardate: les sufragistes

 en 1 minut, per jordi creus (sàpiens)


1. La lluita pels drets

Amb el nom sufragistes coneixem les dones que, a partir de les darreres dècades del segle XIX, van lluitar per aconseguir els drets que els pertocaven, com el de poder votar en unes eleccions. El moviment es va iniciar als Estats Units i a la Gran Bretanya i la seva principal icona va ser Emmeline Pankhurst.


2. Una dona avançada

Tot i estar casada i tenir cinc fills va organitzar vagues de fam i va encapçalar manifestacions i actes de protesta, cosa que li va comportar ser detinguda diverses vegades. Amb ella el moviment sufragista i la lluita pel vot femení van aconseguir força popularitat. L'any 1928, la Gran bretanya va permetre votar totes les dones majors de 21 anys. Pankhurst havia mort feia poques setmanes.


3. Els estats pioners

Abans, però, el 1902, Austràlia va ser el primer estat que va permetre no només el vot femení sinó també que les dones poguessin optar a càrrecs públics. A partir d'aquí Finlàndia, la Unió Soviètica i Suècia. A Espanya no es va aconseguir fins al 1931 i a França fins al 1946. Les dones de la democràcia Suïssa no van poder votar fins al ...1971!




dimarts, de març 09, 2021

stardate: la mort i la covid-19

més referències:




Covid-19 data
Tracking covid-19 excess deaths across countries
The Economist
march 9, 2021


el nombre de morts causats per la pandemia pot arribar a ser molt més gran del que els governs publiquen cada dia. les raons son diverses: s'han deixat de comptar els que no s'havien fet el test de covid previament, i la magnitut d'aquests depen del nombre de tests que es facin, s'han produir errors i retards en la comunicació de les dades, s'han produit morts indirectes ja que la covid ha dificultat l'acces als hospitals, ...

una manera de veure l'abast real dels efectes de la covid es computant l'excés de morts: comparant el nombre de morts en una certa regió en un cert periode, amb els nombres corresponents a la base històrica de la mateixa regió en el mateix periode.




si comparem aquests nombres amb els que cada país reporta com a morts a conseqüència de la covid veiem com aquests últims es queden curts




de fet, els efectes de la covid són molt pitjors dels de qualsevol epidemia recent de grip a europa. i encara que la majoria de les víctimes de la covid són majors de 65 anys, durant l'abril del 2020 les morts de la població europera entre 45 i 65 anys va ser un 40% major de la normal.




finalment comparem l'evolució setmanal de l'excés de morts (línia vermella) amb els morts oficials deguts a la covid segons els governs (àrea rosa)