dimarts, de juny 01, 2021

stardate: dones i promoció laboral


women in academic economics in the us: 28.8% of phd graduates and 13.9% of full professors (CSWEP 2017)

supply side: less likely to apply for promotions

gender differences on psychological attributes (Akerlof and Kranton 2000, Bertrand 2011)

1) preference for competitive environments (NIederle and Vesterlund 2007, Buster et al. 2014)

2) bargaining abilities in the labor market (Babcock and Laschever 2003, Blackaby et al. 2005)

3) children and family tradeoffs (Fernández et al. 2004, Goldin 2006, Bertrand 2013, Bertrand et al. 2015)

demand side: less likely to be selected

gender-based discrimination (Goldin and Rouse 2000)

multiple equilibria:

women are paid less if expected to devote time to home production.

then: women exert less effort, obtain lower pay, devote more time to home work, thus fulfill the expectations.

ECB policy supporting diversity 2010, including explicit gender targets has implied (Hospido, Laeven and Lamo 2020):

1) wage gap emerge within a few years of hiring, and grows steadily with tenure.

2) women are less likely to be promoted prior to the change in policy, and the promotion gap disappears after it.

3) women are less likely to apply for promotion before the change. application gap is larger for women that compete within a stronger peer group (Niederle and Vesterlund 2007)

4) application gap remains after policy change.

5) following promotion women perform better in terms of salary progression

women are less likely to receive outside offers (Bosquet et al. 2019)

career progression is faster for women with female bosses (Kunze and Miller 2017)

conditional on publication in a top academic journal, women have higher citations (Card et al. 2020)